PARIS — The Luxembourg government, in its latest move to raise its profile in the NATO alliance and Europe’s defense policy, has agreed to purchase and launch a single high-resolution optical Earth observation satellite.

While designed as a contribution to NATO and European Union defense programs, the satellite is also an example of the challenges in European military integration.

France has a long-established optical intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capacity. Spain is about to launch both optical and radar reconnaissance satellites. Germany’s Federal Intelligence Service (BND . . .

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